Conversation One [0:39]
M: Guess what? The worst food I've ever had was in France.
W: Really? That's odd. [1] I thought the French were all good cooks.
M: Yes. That's right. I suppose it's really like anywhere else, though. You know, some places are good. Some bad. But it's really all our own fault.
W: What do you mean?
M: Well, it was the first time I'd been to France. This was years ago when I was at school. [2] I went there with my parents' friends, from my father's school. They'd hired a coach to take them to Switzerland.
W: A school trip?
M: Right. Most of them had never been abroad before. We'd crossed the English Channel at night, and we set off through France, and breakfast time arrived, and the coach driver had arranged for us to stop at this little café. There we all were, tired and hungry, and then we made the great discovery.
W: What was that?
M: Bacon and eggs.
W: Fantastic! The real English breakfast.
M: Yes. Anyway, we didn't know any better --- so we had it, and ugh...!
W: What was it like? Disgusting?
M: Oh, it was incredible! They just got a bowl and put some fat in it. And then they put some bacon in the fat, broke an egg over the top and put the whole lot in the oven for about ten minutes.
W: In the oven! You're joking. You can't cook bacon and eggs in the oven!
M: Well. They must have done it that way. It was hot, but it wasn't cooked. There was just this egg floating about in gallons of fat and raw bacon.
W: [3] Did you actually eat it?
M: No! Nobody did. They all wanted to turn round and go home. You know, back to teabags and fish and chips. You can't blame them really. Anyway, the next night we were all given another foreign speciality.
W: What was that?
M: [4] Snails. That really finished them off. Lovely holiday that was! [finish off: informal kill, defeat, ruin 杀死,击垮,毁掉]

  1. A What did the woman think of the French?

    1. They were all good at cooking.  

    2. They were particular about food.  

    3. They were proud of their cuisine.  

    4. They were fond of bacon and eggs.  

    Note: A 
  2. 男士提到他在法国吃到了自己吃过最糟糕的食物时,女士表示这很奇怪,并且说她原本以为所有法国人都是好厨师。说明女士认为所有法国人都擅长烹饪。

  3. D Who did the man travel with on his first trip to Switzerland?

    1. His parents.  

    2. His friends.  

    3. His schoolmates.  

    4. His parents’ friends.  

    Note: D 
  4. 男士提到他当时和父母的朋友一同去的瑞士。

  5. C What does the man say about the breakfast at the little French café?

    1. No tea was served with the meal.  

    2. It was the real English breakfast.  

    3. No one of the group ate it.  

    4. It was a little overcooked.  

    Note: C 
  6. 男士详细描述了他在一个法国小餐馆吃到的咸猪肉煎蛋是什么样子,女士问这样的食物他们是否真的吃了,男士表示他们没有一个人吃。

  7. D What did the man think of his holiday in France?

    1. It was full of excitement.  

    2. It was really extraordinary.  

    3. It was a risky experience.  

    4. It was rather disappointing.  

    Note: D 
  8. 男士说经历了第一次难以下咽的早餐后,第二天晚上餐馆又提供了里一道特色菜———蜗牛,这道菜让与他同去的人们都彻底崩溃了,所以他最后说:“那可真是一个糟糕的假期!”

对话一 [00:40]
女:真的?奇怪了。[1] 我以为法国人都是好厨师呢
男:记得我第一次去法国是几年前还在上学的时候。[2] 我和我父母的朋友们一起去的,从我父亲的学校出发。他们雇了一辆长途汽车带他们去瑞士。
女:[3] 你真的吃了吗
男:[4] 蜗牛。那真是彻底让他们崩溃了。这假期真是有够赞的!


Conversation Two [3:55]
M: [5] You say your shop has been doing well. Could you give me some idea of what "doing well" means in facts and figures?
W: Well, "doing well" means averaging £1,200 or more a week for about 7 years, making almost a quarter of a million pounds. And "doing well" means your earnings are rising. Last year, we did slightly over 50,000 and this year, we hope to do more than 60,000. So, that's good if we continue to rise.
M: Now, that's gross earnings, I assume. What about your expenses?
W: Yes, that's gross. The expenses, of course, go up steadily. And since we've moved to this new shop, the expenses have increased greatly, because it's a much bigger shop. So I couldn't say exactly what our expenses are. They are something in the region of six or seven thousand pounds a year, which is not high. [6] Commercially speaking, it's fairly low, and we try to keep our expenses as low as we can.
M: [7] And your prices are much lower than the same goods in shops round about. How do the local shopkeepers feel about having a shop doing so well in their midst?
W: Perhaps a lot of them don't realize how well we are doing, because we don't make a point of publicizing. That was a lesson we learned very early on.We were very friendly with all local shopkeepers and [8] we happened to mention to a local shopkeeper how much we had made that week. He was very unhappy and never as friendly again. So we make a point of never publicizing the amount of money we make. But we are on very good terms with all the shops. None of them have ever complained that we are putting them out of business or anything like that. I think it's a nice friendly relationship. Maybe if they did know what we made, perhaps they wouldn't be so friendly.

  1. B What are the speakers mainly talking about?

    1. The woman’s relationship with other shops.  

    2. The business success of the woman’s shop.  

    3. The key to running a shop at a low cost.  

    4. The woman’s earnings over the years.  

    Note: B 
  2. 对话开篇男士询问女士她所说的商店运营良好是什么意思,并要求女士用事实和数据解释一下,接下来女士说明了自己的毛收入及大概支出,还说她们的商店在当地运转得的确很好。说明两人谈论的主要内容是围绕女士的商店的良好运营展开的。

  3. C What does the woman say her shop tries to do?

    1. Improve its customer service.  

    2. Expand its business scale.  

    3. Keep down its expenses.  

    4. Upgrade the goods it sells.  

    Note: C 
  4. 男士问女士商店的支出情况时,女士说商店的支出是稳步增长的,但从商业的角度来看,商店的支出还是相当低的,并且他们努力让支出保持在尽可能低的水平。

  5. A What do we learn about the goods sold at the woman’s shop?

    1. They are sold at lower prices than in other shops.  

    2. They are very-popular with the local residents.  

    3. They are delivered free of charge.  

    4. They are in great demand.  

    Note: A 
  6. 男士提到,女士商店里的货物价格要比附近其他商店的同类商品价格低得多。

  7. D Why doesn’t the woman want to make known their earnings anymore?

    1. To follow the custom of the local shopkeepers.  

    2. To attract more customers in the neighborhood.  

    3. To avoid being put out of business in competition.  

    4. To maintain friendly relationships with other shops.  

    Note: D 
  8. 对话中女士提到,以前她们和当地的其他店主关系都非常好,但当她不经意间向一位店主提到她们那一周的收入之后,那位店主表现得非常不愉快,对她们不再像以前那样友好了,所以女士再也不将自己的收入情况告诉别人了。说明她不想把自己的收入告诉别人是为了与当地其他店主维持友好关系。

对话二 [3:55]
男:[5] 你说你的商店经营不错。你能跟我说说"经营不错"所指的事实和数据吗
女:是的,是毛利。开支当然也是稳步增加了。因此我们搬到了这个新店,开支就增加了很多,因为这是个大得多的店。因此我无法确切说出我们的开支。大概是在一年6千到7千之间,并不高。[6] 从商业角度来说,这个数字相当低我们尽量把费用尽可能的降低了
男:[7] 你的价格比商店里的同种商品低很多。当地的店主如何看待他们之中有一家商店做的这么好?
女:也许他们中的很多没有意识到我们做的有多好,因为我们不着重宣传。这是我们很早就学到的教训。我们对所有当地的店主非常友好,[8] 我们恰好跟一个当地的店主提到那周赚了多少。他非常不开心,再也不友好了。所以我们特别注意从不公布我们所赚取的金额。但是我们和所有的商店都相处很好。他们中没有一个人曾经抱怨说我们把他们挤出市场或者其它此类言论。我认为这是一个很好友好的关系。如果他们知道我们做了什么,也许他们就不会那么友好了。


Passage One [7:55]
     Birds are famous for carrying things around. Some, like homing pigeons, can be trained to deliver messages and packages. Other birds unknowingly carry seeds that cling to them for the ride. [9] Canadian scientists have found a worrisome, new example of the power that birds have to spread stuff around. Way up north in the Canadian Arctic, seabirds are picking up dangerous chemicals in the ocean and delivering them to ponds near where the birds live.
     Some 10,000 pairs of the birds, called fulmars [管鼻藿], a kind of Arctic seabird, make their nests on Devon Island, north of the Arctic Circle. [10] The fulmars travel some 400 kilometers over the sea to find food. When they return home, their droppings end up all around their nesting sites, including in nearby ponds.
     [11] Previously, scientists noticed pollutants arriving in the Arctic with the wind. Salmon [鲑鱼,大麻哈鱼] also carry dangerous chemicals as the fish migrate between rivers and the sea. The bodies of fish and other meat-eaters can build up high levels of the chemicals. 
     To test the polluting power of fulmars, researchers collected samples of deposit [沉淀物] from 11 ponds on Devon Island. In ponds closest to the colony [聚居地], the results showed there were far more pollutants than in ponds less affected by the birds. The pollutants in the ponds appear to come from fish that fulmars eat when they're out on the ocean. [12] People who live, hunt, or fish near bird colonies need to be careful, the researchers say. The birds don't mean to cause harm, but the chemicals they carry can cause major problems.

  1. B What have Canadian scientists found about some seabirds?

    1. They can be used to deliver messages in times of emergency.  

    2. They deliver pollutants from the ocean to their nesting sites.  

    3. They carry plant seeds and spread them to faraway places.  

    4. They are on the verge of extinction because of pollution.  

    Note: B 
  2. 短文开篇提到,鸟类以传送物品而闻名,而加拿大科学家发现一个令人担忧的说明鸟类具有散播物品能力的新例子。在加拿大极地的北部,海鸟们捡起海水中的危险化学品,带回到它们的栖息地附近的池塘中。

  3. C What does the speaker say about the seabirds called fulmars?

    1. They migrate to the Arctic Circle during the summer.  

    2. They originate from Devon Island in the Arctic area.  

    3. They travel as far as 400 kilometers in search of food.  

    4. They have the ability to survive in extreme weathers.  

    Note: C 
  4. 管鼻藿(fulmars)这种鸟在海上飞行大约400公里去觅食。

  5. A What did scientists previously notice about pollutants in the Arctic?

    1. They were carried by the wind.  

    2. They had become more poisonous.  

    3. They were less than on the continent.  

    4. They poisoned some of the fulmars.  

    Note: A 
  6. 以前科学家们就注意到,风可以将污染物带至北极。

  7. C What does the speaker warn about at the end of the talk?

    1. The threats humans pose to Arctic seabirds,  

    2. The diminishing colonies for Arctic seabirds.  

    3. The harm Arctic seabirds may cause to humans.  

    4. The effects of the changing climate on Arctic seabirds.  

    Note: C 
  8. 短文结尾处提到,研究者说,在海鸟聚居地附近生活、狩猎或捕鱼的人们需要小心,虽然这些海鸟不是有意造成伤害的,但它们带来的化学品会引起大麻烦。

短文一 [7:55]
     鸟类以搬运东西而闻名。有些像信鸽一样,可以接受培训以传递消息和包裹。其它鸟类在不知不觉中携带了粘附着它们的种子。[9] 加拿大科学家发现了一个令人担忧的事实,即鸟类所拥有的传播的力量的新例子。在加拿大北极的北部,海鸟正在海洋中拾起危险化学品,并将其运送到靠近鸟类生活地的池塘
     北极圈北部的德文岛上有一万只鸟在此筑巢,它们被称为管鼻藿,一种北极海鸟。 [10] 这些管鼻藿在海上穿越约四百公里去寻找食物。当他们回家时,他们的粪便会围绕着他们的筑巢地点,包括附近的池塘。
     [11] 以前,科学家注意到有随着风抵达北极的污染物。随着鱼类在海洋之间的迁徙,大麻哈鱼也会携带危险化学品。鱼类和其他肉食者的尸体可以积累高含量的化学物质。
     为了测试污染物的污染力,研究人员从德文岛的11个池塘收集了沉积物样本。在最靠近栖息地的池塘中,结果显示污染物远远高于不受鸟类影响的池塘。池塘中的污染物似乎来自管鼻藿在海洋里吃的鱼类。研究人员说,[12] 在禽鸟群附近生活,狩猎或捕鱼的人需要小心。鸟类不意味着会造成伤害,但它们携带的化学物质可能会导致重大问题


Passage Two [11:20]
     [13] In recent years, the death rate among American centenarians [百岁或逾百岁以上的人] --- people who have lived to age 100 or older --- has decreased, dropping 14 percent for women and 20 percent for men from 2008 to 2014. The leading causes of death in this age group are also changing. In 2000, the top five causes of death for centenarians were heart disease, stroke, flu, cancer and Alzheimer's disease [阿尔茨海默症,老年痴呆症]. [14] But by 2014, the death rate from Alzheimer's disease for this age group had more than doubled --- increasing from 3.8 percent to 8.5 percent --- making the progressive brain disease [进行性脑疾病] the second leading cause of death for centenarians. One reason for the rise in deaths from Alzheimer's disease in this group may be that developing this condition remains possible even after people beat the odds of dying from other diseases such as cancer.
     [15] People physically fit enough to survive over 100 years ultimately give in to diseases such as Alzheimer's which affects the mind and cognitive function. In other words, it appears that their minds give out [停止运行,丧失能力] before their bodies do. On the other hand, the death rate from flu dropped from 7.4 percent in 2000 to 4.1 percent in 2014. That pushed flu from the third leading cause of death to the fifth.
     Overall, the total number of centenarians is going up. In 2014, there were 72,197 centenarians, compared to 50,281 in 2000. But because this population is getting larger, the number of deaths in this group is also increasing --- 18,434 centenarians died in 2000, whereas 25,914 died in 2014.

  1. A What does the speaker say about the risk of dying for American centenarians in recent years?

    1. It has decreased.  

    2. It has been exaggerated.  

    3. It has become better understood.  

    4. It has remained basically the same.  

    Note: A 
  2. 短文开篇处提到,近几年美国百岁老人的死亡率有所下降,2008年到2014年,女性的死亡率降低了14%,男性的死亡率降低了20%。

  3. D What does the speaker say about Alzheimer’s disease?

    1. It develops more easily in centenarians not actively engaged.  

    2. It is now the second leading cause of death for centenarians.  

    3. It has had no effective cure so far.  

    4. It calls for more intensive research.  

    Note: D 
  4. 到2014年,美国百岁老人这一群体中,老年痴呆症引起的死亡率增加了一倍多,由2.8%上升的8.5%,这使得这一进行性大脑疾病成为导致百岁老人死亡的第二大病因。

  5. C What is characteristic of people who live up to 100 years and beyond?

    1. They care more about their physical health.  

    2. Their quality of life deteriorates rapidly.  

    3. Their minds fail before their bodies do.  

    4. They cherish their life more than ever.  

    Note: C 
  6. 那些身体健康地活到百岁以上的老人们,最终向诸如老年痴呆症这样影响精神与认知功能的疾病屈服了。说明他们的头脑似乎在他们身体出问题前就先出问题了。

短文二 [11:20]
     [13] 近年来,美国百岁老人(百岁及以上的人)的死亡率下降了,从2008年到2014年,女性下降了14%,男性下降了20%。这个年龄段的主要死亡原因也在变化。2000年,百岁老人的五大死因是心脏病,中风,流感,癌症和阿尔茨海默症。[14] 但到2014年,这一年龄段的阿尔茨海默症死亡率上升不止一倍,从3.8%增加到了8.5%,使得这种进行性脑疾病成为百岁老人死亡的第二大原因。在这个组中阿尔茨海默症死亡人数上升的一个原因可能是即使在人们罹患其他疾病如癌症的可能性之后,发展到这种病症也是可能的。
     [15] 活过100岁的身体足够健康的人,最终会因阿尔茨海默病等疾病导致影响心理和认知功能。换句话说,似乎他们的心智比身体先失灵。另一方面,流感的死亡率则从2000年的7.4%下降到2014年的4.1%。这将流感从第三大死因推向了第五大。
     总的来说,百岁老人的总数正在上升。2014年,有72197名百岁老人,而2000年有50281人。但由于这个群体越来越大,本组死亡的人数也在增长。 18,434名百岁老人在2000年去世,而在2014年去世的为25914人。


Recording One [14:45]
     Okay. So let's get started. And to start things off I think what we need to do is consider a definition. [16] I'm going to define what love is but then most of the experiments I'm going to talk about are really focused more on attraction than love. And I'm going to pick a definition from a former colleague, Robert Sternberg, who is now the dean at Tufts University but was here on our faculty at Yale for nearly thirty years. And he has a theory of love that argues that it's made up of three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment, or what is sometimes called decision commitment. And these are relatively straightforward. He argued that you don't have love if you don't have all three of these elements.
     Intimacy is the feeling of closeness, of connectedness with someone, of bonding. Operationally, you could think of intimacy as you share secrets, you share information with this person that you don't share with anybody else. Okay. That's really what intimacy is, the bond that comes from sharing information that isn't shared with other people. The second element is passion. Passion is the drive that leads to romance. You can think of it as physical attraction. And Sternberg argues that this is a required component of a love relationship. The third element of love in Sternberg's theory is what he calls decision commitment, the decision that one is in a love relationship, the willingness to label it as such, and a commitment to maintain that relationship at least for some period of time. [17] Sternberg would argue it's not love if you don't call it love and if you don't have some desire to maintain the relationship. So if you have all three of these, intimacy, passion and commitment, in Sternberg's theory you have love. 
     [18] Now what's interesting about the theory is what do you have if you only have one out of three or two out of three. What do you have and how is it different if you have a different two out of three? What's interesting about this kind of theorizing is it gives rise to many different combinations that can be quite interesting when you break them down and start to look them carefully. So what I've done is I've taken Sternberg's three elements of love, intimacy, passion and commitment, and I've listed out the different kinds of relationships you would have if you had zero, one, two or three out of the three elements.

  1. A What does the speaker say about most of the experiments mentioned in his talk?

    1. They are focused more on attraction than love.  

    2. They were done by his former colleague at Yale.  

    3. They were carried out over a period of some thirty years.  

    4. They form the basis on which he builds his theory of love.  

    Note: A 
  2. 讲座开篇部分,讲话者说他会对“爱”进行定义,但他接下来要讲的大多数实验的真正关注点是“吸引”而非“爱情”。

  3. C What does Robert Sternberg argue about love?

    1. The relationship cannot last long if no passion is involved.  

    2. Intimacy is essential but not absolutely indispensable to love.  

    3. It is not love if you don’t wish to maintain the relationship.  

    4. Romance is just impossible without mutual understanding.  

    Note: C 
  4. 讲话者在解释Robert Sternberg的爱情理论的第三个要素时提到,Sternberg认为,如果你不把某种感情称之为爱,如果你没有将这段感情持续下去的想法,那这就不是爱。

  5. D What question does the speaker think is interesting about Sternberg’s three elements of love?

    1. Which of them is considered most important.  

    2. Whether it is true love without commitment.  

    3. When the absence of anyone doesn’t affect the relationship.  

    4. How the relationship is to be defined if anyone is missing.  

    Note: D 
  6. 讲解完Sternberg的爱情理论三要素之后,讲话者说,最有意思的是如果这三要素不全,缺少一两个,那么该怎样定义,而这三要素在不齐全的时候又会出现多个组合,这正是该理论很有意思的地方。

录音一 [14:45]
     好的,我们开始吧。开始我们需要做的是思考一个定义。[16] 我要定义什么是爱,但是我将要讨论的大多数实验真的更多地专注于吸引力而不是爱。而我将从前同事罗伯特·斯登伯格那里选出一个定义,罗伯特·斯特伯格现在是塔夫茨大学的院长,担任耶鲁大学教职员工近三十年。他有一个爱的理论,认为它由三个部分组成:亲密,激情和承诺,或有时被称为决策承诺。这些都比较简单。他认为,如果你这三个元素都没有的话,你就没有爱。
     亲密是一种紧靠的感觉,是与某人有着联系和纽带的感觉。在操作上,你可以在分享秘密时考虑亲密关系,你与这个人分享而不会与其他人分享信息。好的。这才是真正的亲密,纽带来源于分享不与别人分享的信息。第二个元素是激情。激情是浪漫的驱动力。你可以把它看作身体吸引力。而斯特伯格认为,这是爱情的必要组成部分。斯特伯格理论中爱的第三个要素就是他所谓的决定承诺,对爱情关系的确认,做出此种决定的意愿,以及至少在一段时间内保持这种关系的承诺。[17] 斯登伯格认为,如果你不称之为爱,不愿意维持关系,那就不是爱。所以,如果你有这三个元素,亲密,激情和承诺,根据斯登伯格的理论,你就是有爱的人。
     [18] 现在,该理论有趣之处在于,如果你只有三个元素中的一个或是两个的话,你拥有的是什么?如果你有三个元素中两两不同的的两个元素时,你拥有的又是什么?由此会产生许多不同的组合,当你将其分解并开始仔细查看时,会有非常有趣结果。所以我采用了斯登伯格的爱的三个要素,亲密,激情和承诺,并列出了你 --- 在拥有三要素中的0个,1个,2个或者3个时 --- 可能会有的不同种类的关系。


Recording Two [19:15]
    Hi! I am Elizabeth Hoffler, Master of Social Work. I am a social worker, a lobbyist, and a special assistant to the executive director at the National Association of Social Workers. [19] Today we are going to be talking about becoming a social worker. Social work is the helping profession. [20] Its primary mission is to enhance human well-being and help meet the basic needs of all people, with a particular focus on those who are vulnerable, oppressed, and living in poverty. We often deal with complex human needs. Social work is different from other professions, because we focus on the person and environment. We deal with the external factors that impact a person's situation and outlook. And we create opportunity for assessment and intervention, to help clients and communities cope effectively with their reality and change that reality when necessary.
     In thousands of ways social workers help other people, people from every age, every background, across the country. Wherever needed, social workers come to help. The most well-known aspect of the profession is that of a social safety net. We help guide people to critical resources and counsel them on life-changing decisions. [21] There are more than 600,000 professional social workers in the country, and we all either have a bachelor's degree, a master's degree, or a PhD in Social Work. There are more clinically trained social workers than clinically trained psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatric nurses combined.
     Throughout this series you will learn more about the profession, the necessary steps to get a social work degree, the rich history of social work, and the many ways that social workers help others. Later in this series, you will hear from Stacy Collins and Mel Wilson, fellow social workers at the National Association of Social Workers. Stacy is going to walk you through the step-by-step process of becoming a social worker, and [22] Mel will tell you about the range of options you have once you get your social work degree, as well as the high standards of responsibility the social workers must adhere to.
     The National Association of Social Workers represents nearly 145,000 social workers across the country. Our mission is to promote, protect, and advance the social work profession. We hope you enjoy this series about how you can make a difference by becoming a social worker. Next, we are going to talk about choosing social work.

  1. A What does the speaker mainly talk about?

    1. Social work as a profession.  

    2. The history of social work.  

    3. Academic degrees required of social work applicants.  

    4. The aim of the National Association of Social Workers.  

    Note: A 
  2. 讲座开篇指出,今天要讨论的内容是成为一名社会福利工作者,社会福利工作是一种为他人提供帮助的职业。

  3. B What do social workers mainly do?

    1. They try to change people’s social behavior.  

    2. They help enhance the well-being of the underprivileged.  

    3. They raise people’s awareness of the environment.  

    4. They create a lot of opportunities for the unemployed.  

    Note: B 
  4. 社会福利工作的主要使命是提高人类的幸福感,帮助所有人满足基本的需求,特别是为弱者、受压迫者和贫困人群提供帮助。

  5. B What do professional social workers have in common, according to the speaker?

    1. They have all received strict clinical training.  

    2. They all have an academic degree in social work.  

    3. They are all members of the National Association.  

    4. They have all made a difference through their work.  

    Note: B 
  6. 这个国家目前有60多万职业社会福利工作者,他们每个人都有社会福利工作学位,学士、硕士、博士各个层次的都有。

  7. D What is Mel Wilson going to talk about in the series?

    1. The promotion of social workers’ social status.  

    2. The importance of training for social workers.  

    3. Ways for social workers to meet people’s needs.  

    4. Social workers’ job options and responsibilities.  

    Note: D 
  8. 讲话者说,在接下来的讲座中,Stacy Collins和Mel Wilson会分别对社会福利工作的不同方面进行详细讲述,Mel Wilson主要讲述取得社会福利工作学位后的工作选择范围以及社会 福利工作者所需要严格遵守的对责任要求很高的标准规范。

录音二 [19:15]
     嗨!我是伊丽莎白霍夫勒,社会工作硕士。我是社会工作者,游说者,也是全国社会工作者协会常务理事的特别助理。[19] 今天我们要谈谈成为社会工作者一事。社会工作是帮助性职业[20] 其主要任务是增强人的福祉,帮助满足所有人的基本需要,特别注重弱势、受压迫和生活贫困的人。我们经常处理复杂的人类需求。社会工作与其他专业不同,因为我们专注于人与环境。我们处理影响一个人的情况和前景的外部因素。我们为评估和干预创造了机会,帮助客户和社区有效应对现实,在必要时改变现实。
     社会工作者以数千种方式帮助其他人 --- 各个时代,各个背景,全国各地的人们。有需要的时候,社会工作者就会来帮忙。该行业最为人所知的一个方面是社会安全网。我们帮助引导人们掌握关键性资源,并向他们提供有关改变生活的决定。[21] 全国有60多万名专业社会工作者,我们都有本科学历,硕士学位或社会工作博士学位。临床训练有素的社会工作者比临床训练精神科医生、心理学家和精神科护士更多。
     在本系列中,你将了解更多关于职业、获得社会工作学位的必要步骤、社会工作的丰富历史以及社会工作者帮助他人的许多方式。在本系列的后面,你会听到全国社会工作者协会社会工作者斯特西·柯林斯和梅尔·威尔逊的讲话。斯泰西将带你走过成为社会工作者一步一步的过程,[22] 梅尔会告诉你一旦你获得社会工作学位的选择范围以及社会工作者必须坚持的责任高标准


Recording Three [23:40]
     Today, I'd like to talk about what happens when celebrity role models get behind healthy habits, but at the same time, promote junk food. [23] Currently, there's mounting criticism of Michelle Obama's "Let's Move!" campaign, which fights childhood obesity by encouraging youngsters to become more physically active, and has signed on singer Beyoncé and basketball player Shaquille O'Neal, both of whom also endorse sodas, which are a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. Now there's a lot more evidence of how powerful a celebrity --- especially a professional athlete --- can be in influencing children's behavior.
     In a report published by the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University, researchers studied 100 professional athletes and their endorsement contracts. The team focused on athletes since they are theoretically the best role models for active, healthy lifestyles for children. After sorting the deals by category, they determined that among the 512 brands associated with the athletes, most involved sporting goods, followed closely by food and beverage brands.
     Sports drinks, which are often high in sugar and calories made up most of the food and drink deals, with soft drinks and fast food filling out the remainder. Of the 46 beverages endorsed by professional athletes, 93% relied exclusively on sugar for all of their calories.
     It's no surprise that high-profile athletes can influence children's eating behaviors, but the scientists were able to quantify how prevalent these endorsements are in the children's environment. Advertisements featuring professional athletes and their endorsed products tend to get impressive exposure on TV, radio, in print and online. [24] And in 2010, the researchers reported that children ages 12 to 17 saw more athlete-endorsed food and beverage brand commercials than adults.
     One reason any campaign wants a popular celebrity spokesperson is because kids are attracted to them no matter what they are doing. We can't expect kids to turn off that admiration when the same person is selling sugar. At best, kids might be confused. At worst, they'll think the messages about soda are the same as the messages about water, but those two beverages aren't the same.
     [25] If children are turning to athletes as role models, it's in their best interest if their idols are consistent. Consistent messaging of positive behaviors will show healthier lifestyles for kids to follow.

  1. A What is the aim of Michelle Obama’s campaign?

    1. To fight childhood obesity.  

    2. To help disadvantaged kids.  

    3. To encourage kids to play more sports.  

    4. To urge kids to follow their role models.  

    Note: A 
  2. 讲座开篇提到,Michelle Obama的“Let's Move!”是通过鼓励孩子们多做体育运动以减少儿童期肥胖现象的活动。说明该活动的目的在于对抗儿童肥胖。

  3. D What does research find about advertisements featuring professional athletes?

    1. They best boost product sales when put online.  

    2. They are most effective when appearing on TV.  

    3. They are becoming more and more prevalent.  

    4. They impress kids more than they do adults.  

    Note: D 
  4. 讲座中提到,2010年,研究人员在报告中说,12至17岁的青少年看运动员所宣传的食品和饮料类商业广告比成年人多。说明由职业运动员代言的广告给儿童留下的印象比给成年人留下的印象多。

  5. C What does the speaker think kids’ idols should do?

    1. Always place kids’ interest first.  

    2. Do what they advocate in public.  

    3. Message positive behaviors at all times.  

    4. Pay attention to their image before children.  

    Note: C 
  6. 讲座结尾处提到,如果儿童以运动员为偶像,那么偶像的言行一致对他们才最有利。偶像们言行一致地传达积极的行为,才能给孩子们提供可以效仿的更加健康的生活方式。

录音三 [23:40]
     今天,我想谈一谈名人榜样支持健康习惯,但同时推广垃圾食品会发生什么。[23] 目前,很多人批评米歇尔·奥巴马的"让我们走!"运动,该运动通过鼓励儿童身体变得更加活跃来抵制儿童肥胖,并且已经签下了歌手碧昂丝和篮球员沙奎尔·奥尼尔,他们都为苏打水——肥胖症的主要贡献者做广告。现在有更多的证据表明一个名人,特别是一个职业运动员,可以影响孩子的行为。
     高调的运动员可以影响儿童的饮食习惯并不奇怪,但科学家们能够量化这些代言人在儿童环境中的流行程度。专业运动员及其认可产品的广告往往会在电视,收音机,印刷品和网络上曝光。[24] 而在2010年,研究人员报告说,12至17岁的儿童看到的运动员认可的食品和饮料品牌广告比成年人更多
     [25] 如果孩子们将运动员当作榜样,那么如果他们的偶像是始终如一的,那对儿童来说就是最有利的。积极行为的一致信息会给孩子们展示更健康的生活方式以便追随



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