Conversation One [00:40]
W: Professor Henderson, could you give us a brief overview of what you do, where you work and your main area of research?
M: Well, [1] the Center for Climate Research where I work links the science of climate change to issues around economics and policy. Some of our research is to do with the likely impacts of climate change and all of the associated risks.
W: And how strong is the evidence that climate change is happening? That it's really something we need to be worried about.
M: Well, most of the science of climate change, particularly that to do with global warming, is simply fact. But other aspects of the science are less certain or at least more disputed. And so we're really talking about risk. [2] What the economics tells us is that it's probably cheaper to avoid climate change --- to avoid the risk --- than it is to deal with the likely consequences.
W: So what are we doing? What can we do about it?
M: Well I would argue that we need to develop the science specifically to understand the likely impacts of climate change in different contexts. As I said, we need to understand the best ways of avoiding climate change, [3] and this will involve a huge transition to low carbon energy systems and the transition is a tremendous priority. And for this to happen, we may need action on a global scale. From a political perspective, we need to understand the terms on which major countries like China and the USA might sign up to a global agreement because at the moment we don't have that consensus.
W: Right.
M: And [4] we also need to plan ahead so that we're in a position to deal with the likely levels of climate change which are already inevitable and even more so, too, for the levels that are likely if we don't get those global agreements.

  1. C What does Professor Henderson say about his main area of research?

    1. It tries to predict the possible trends of global climate change.  

    2. It studies the impacts of global climate change on people’s lives.  

    3. It links the science of climate change to economic and policy issues.  

    4. It focuses on the efforts countries can make to deal with global warming.  

    Note: C


  2. B What does Professor Henderson say about climate change?

    1. It will take a long time before a consensus is reached on its impact.  

    2. It would be more costly to deal with its consequences than to avoid it.  

    3. It is the most pressing issue confronting all countries.  

    4. It is bound to cause endless disputes among nations.  

    Note: B


  3. A What does Professor Henderson say is a top priority in combating climate change?

    1. The transition to low-carbon energy systems.  

    2. The cooperation among world major powers.  

    3. The signing of a global agreement.  

    4. The raising of people’s awareness.  

    Note: A


  4. C What does Professor Henderson advise us to do to better deal with climate change?

    1. Carry out more research on it.  

    2. Cut down energy consumption.  

    3. Plan well in advance.  

    4. Adopt new technology.  

    Note: C


男:多数气候变化的科学 --- 尤其是涉及全球变暖的 --- 是不争的事实。但是其他方面还不太确定或至少还有争议。所以我们在讨论的是风险。经济学告诉我们的是,避免气候变化 --- 从而防止风险 --- 比处理气候变化的后果,代价要小。


Conversation Two [4:10]
W: I have many business English students. When I teach the classroom, [5] we often end up talking about things like success and what leads to success. And it's interesting that many of them mention the element of luck.
M: Right.
W: Luck is important to success. But since you've seen that fantastic video on the TED Talks website by Richard St. John, he doesn't mention luck at all.
M: Well, I'm a firm believer that people can make their own luck. I mean what people regard as luck, you can actually create, to a degree.
W: Sure. [6] I think a lot of what people consider luck is attributed to how you respond to the opportunities that come your way.
M: Yes. Very good point.
W: [6] Seizing the opportunities. But was there any point in the video that you thought was particularly interesting?
M: Yes. Actually there was. Something very impressive to me is many people think that luck is important and that natural talent is something you must have in order to be successful. [7] And in the video we saw, the point about getting good at something is not about having some natural talent. It's all about practice, practice, practice.
W: Definitely yeah. Natural talent helps in some way but at the end of the day you really do need to work hard and get really really good at what you do.
M: Sure.
W: I thought one interesting thing in the video was the idea of passion being so important and that people who really love what they do. Of course you're going to want to work harder and put the time and effort into it. [8] And the funny thing is that if you love what you do and are really passionate about it and work really hard, the money kind of comes automatically.

  1. B What are the speakers mainly talking about?

    1. When luck plays a role.  

    2. What determines success.  

    3. Whether practice makes perfect.  

    4. How important natural talent is.  

    Note: B


  2. D What is the woman’s view of luck?

    1. It knocks at your door only once in a while.  

    2. It is something that no one can possibly create.  

    3. It comes naturally out of one’s self-confidence.  

    4. It means being good at seizing opportunities.  

    Note: D


  3. D What is the chief point the TED Talks video makes?

    1. Luck rarely contributes to a person’s success.  

    2. One must have natural talent to be successful.  

    3. One should always be ready to seize opportunities.  

    4. Practice is essential to becoming good at something.  

    Note: D

    对话中提到TED Talks网站中的视频节目,该视频阐释了一个主要观点:是否擅长做某事不是取决于天赋,而是取决于是否坚持训练。

  4. C What does the woman think is the funny thing in the TED Talks video?

    1. Putting time and effort into fun things is profitable.  

    2. People who love what they do care little about money.  

    3. Being passionate about work can make one wealthy.  

    4. People in need of money work hard automatically.  

    Note: C

    对话结尾处女士说自己发现TED Talks网站视频节目中一件有趣的事情:如果你喜欢自己的工作,对工作充满热情并且非常努力,那么钱就会自动找上门来。



Passage One [7:55]
     [9] Devils Tower, the first national monument in America, could almost be mistaken for the stump of an enormous tree. Its sheer rock sides sweep up from a broad base until they cut off abruptly at the flat summit. Rising more than 1,000 feet in the middle of the gently rolling plains of Wyoming, the massive column of rock looks as though it was dropped down into this location from a different time and place.
     In a sense it was. Devils Tower is a relic of the past, when the molten rock of the earth's core forced its way to the surface to form the throat of a volcano. As the centuries passed, the rock cooled and hardened, shrinking and cracking into long columns. Born in fire and fury, [10] Devils Tower was then shaped by the slow, gentle work of wind and water. The outer layers of the volcano were worn away, until the hard core stood completely exposed.
     [11] Small wonder that an Indian legend described Devils Tower as being formed by supernatural powers. The legend says that when seven girls were attacked by bears, they took refuge on top of a small rock, and they appealed to the Rock God for help. [12] The god caused the rock to grow and to lift the girls far above the ground, while its sides were scored by the claws of the angry bears. Even today, says the legend, the girls can be seen above the towering rock, as seven shining stars in the night sky.

  1. A What does Devils Tower look like?

    1. The stump of a giant tree.  

    2. A huge piece of rock.  

    3. The peak of a mountain.  

    4. A tall chimney.  

    Note: A


  2. B What caused the volcano’s outer layer to wear away?

    1. Human activity.  

    2. Wind and water.  

    3. Chemical processes.  

    4. Fire and fury.  

    Note: B


  3. D What does an Indian legend say about Devils Tower?

    1. It is a historical monument.  

    2. It was built in ancient times.  

    3. It is Indians’ sacred place for worship.  

    4. It was created by supernatural powers.  

    Note: D


  4. C How did the rock god help the seven girls in the Indian legend?

    1. By sheltering them in a cave.  

    2. By killing the attacking bears.  

    3. By lifting them well above the ground.  

    4. By taking them to the top of a mountain.  

    Note: C




Passage Two [11:02]
     [13] It's no accident that most gas stations have convenience stores attached. Few of us can fill up the tank without buying a few snacks, cigarettes, soft drinks or other items we can live without. “I deserve it.” That's what hard-working men and women say to justify their lavish vacations, big stereo systems or regular restaurant meals. They do deserve such indulgences. However, they also deserve a home of their own, a secure retirement and freedom from worrying about unpaid bills.
     No one should have to live with what a Texas mother described as constant stress, tension, even fear about money. [14] Sadly, the pleasure that comes from extravagances often disappears long before the bills do. The video camera that one single mother bought for a special occasion, for example, is not much fun now. She's figured out that it will take her another three years to pay it off at $30 a month. And the New Yorkers who spent a bundle on an outdoor hot tub now admit they rarely use it, “because we can't afford to heat it in winter.” The solution --- set priorities, add up the annual cost of each item, then consider what else she could buy with the same money. That will help you decide which items are really worth it. [15] One Chicago woman, for example, discovered that daily lunches with coworkers cost her $2,000 a year; she decided to take lunch to work instead. “I now put $20 a week into my vacation fund, and another 20 into retirement savings,” she says. “Those mean more to me than lunch.”

  1. A What does the speaker say about drivers who stop at gas stations?

    1. They will buy something from the convenience stores.  

    2. They will take advantage of the time to rest a while.  

    3. They will have their vehicles washed or serviced.  

    4. They will pick up some souvenirs or gift items.  

    Note: A


  2. A What does the speaker say about extravagances?

    1. They can bring only temporary pleasures.  

    2. They are meant for the extremely wealthy.  

    3. They should be done away with altogether.  

    4. They may eventually drive one to bankruptcy.  

    Note: A


  3. D What does the speaker want to show by the example of the Chicago woman?

    1. A good way to socialize is to have daily lunch with one’s colleagues.  

    2. Retirement savings should come first in one’s family budgeting.  

    3. A vacation will be affordable if one saves 20 dollars a week.  

    4. Small daily savings can make a big difference in one’s life.  

    Note: D


     绝大多数加油站都有便利店,这很正常。很少有人在给油箱加油时而不买些小吃,香烟,软饮料或其他零碎物品的。"这是我应得的。" 那是辛苦工作的男女们为了证明他们奢华的假期、大型立体声系统或定期餐厅用餐合理而说的话。他们值得这样的放纵。但是,他们也值得拥有一个自己的家园,一个有保障的退休以及免于担心支付账单。
     没有人应该过得像一个德克萨斯州的母亲描述的那样,持续的压力,紧张,甚至担心金钱。令人遗憾的是,奢侈生活的快乐往往在账单付清之前很久就消失了。例如,一个母亲为特殊场合买的摄像机现在可没那么好玩了。她知道这会让自己在未来三年时间内每月支付30美元。而一个在户外热水浴缸上花了大价钱的纽约人现在承认他们很少使用它,"因为我们承担不起冬天加热的费用。" 解决方案是:设置优先事项,累加每项支出的年度总额,然后考虑她可以用相同的钱购买什么。这将帮助你决定哪些东西真的值得购买。例如,一名芝加哥女子发现与同事每日午餐每年花费2000美元;于是她决定带午饭去上班。她说:"我现在每周把20美元放入我的假期基金,另外20是退休储蓄金。" "这些对我来说比午饭更重要。"


Recording One [14:34]
     Let's say you start to brainstorm a list of all the emotions you've ever experienced. Just for fun, try it now.
     What's on your list? Chances are, you included things like happy, sad, excited, angry, afraid, grateful, proud, scared, confused, stressed, relaxed and amazed. Now sort your list into two categories --- positive emotions and negative emotions.
     [16] Feeling both positive and negative emotions is a natural part of being human. We might use the word "negative" to describe more difficult emotions, but it doesn't mean those emotions are bad or we shouldn't have them. Still, most people would probably rather feel a positive emotion than a negative one. It's likely you'd prefer to feel happy instead of sad, or confident instead of insecure.
     What matters is how our emotions are balanced --- how much of each type of emotion, positive or negative, we experience.
     Negative emotions warn us of threats or challenges that we may need to deal with. For example, fear can alert us to possible danger. It's a signal that we might need to protect ourselves. Angry feelings warn us that someone is stepping on our toes, crossing a boundary, or violating our trust. Anger can be a signal that we might need to act on our own behalf.
     Negative emotions focus our awareness. They help us to zero in on a problem so we can deal with it. But too many negative emotions can make us feel overwhelmed, anxious, exhausted or stressed out. [17] When negative emotions are out of balance, problems might seem too big to handle.
     The more we dwell on negative emotions, the more negative we begin to feel. Focusing on negativity just keeps it going. Positive emotions balance out negative ones, but they have other powerful benefits, too.
     Instead of narrowing our focus like negative emotions do, [18] positive emotions affect our brains in ways that increase our awareness, attention and memory. They help us take in more information, hold several ideas in mind at once, and understand how different ideas relate to each other. When positive emotions open us up to new possibilities, we are more able to learn and build on our skills. That leads to doing better on tasks and tests. People who have plenty of positive emotions in their everyday lives tend to be happier, healthier, learn better, and get along well with others.

  1. B What does the speaker say about negative emotions?

    1. They should be done away with.  

    2. They are necessary in our lives.  

    3. They enrich our experience.  

    4. They are harmful to health.  

    Note: B


  2. B What happens to people whose negative emotions are out of balance?

    1. They feel stressed out even without any challenges in life.  

    2. They feel too overwhelmed to deal with life’s problems.  

    3. They are anxious to free themselves from life’s troubles.  

    4. They are exhausted even without doing any heavy work.  

    Note: B


  3. A How do positive emotions affect us?

    1. They expand our mind.  

    2. They prolong our lives.  

    3. They narrow our focus.  

    4. They lessen our burdens  

    Note: A


     重要的是我们的情绪如何平衡 --- 各种情绪,积极的还是消极的,我们分别经历了多少。


Recording Two [18:40]
     In the past few months, I've been traveling for weeks at a time with only one suitcase of clothes. One day, I was invited to an important event, and I wanted to wear something special for it. I looked through my suitcase but couldn't find anything to wear. I was lucky to be at the technology conference then, and [19] I had access to 3D printers. So I quickly designed a skirt on my computer, and I loaded the file on the printer. It just printed the pieces overnight. The next morning, I just took all the pieces, assembled them together in my hotel room, and this is actually the skirt that I'm wearing right now.
     So it wasn't the first time that I printed clothes. [20] For my senior collection at fashion design school, I decided to try and 3D print an entire fashion collection from my home. The problem was that I barely knew anything about 3D printing, and I had only nine months to figure out how to print five fashionable looks.
     I always felt most creative when I worked from home. I loved experimenting with new materials, and I always tried to develop new techniques to make the most unique textiles for my fashion projects.
     One summer break, I came here to New York for an internship at a fashion house in Chinatown. We worked on two incredible dresses that were 3D printed. They were amazing --- like you can see here. [21] But I had a few problems with them. They were made from hard plastics and that's why they were very breakable. The models couldn't sit in them, and they even got scratched from the plastics under their arms.
     So now, the main challenge was to find the right material for printing clothes with, I mean the material you feed the printer with. [22] The breakthrough came when I was introduced to Filaflex, which is a new kind of printing material. It's strong, yet very flexible. And with it, I was able to print the first garment, a red jacket that had the word “freedom” embedded into it. And actually, you can easily download this jacket, and change the word to something else, for example, your name or your sweetheart's name.
     So I think in the future, materials will evolve, and they will look and feel like fabrics we know today, like cotton or silk.

  1. B What does the speaker say about the skirts he is wearing now?

    1. It is not easily breakable.  

    2. It came from a 3D printer.  

    3. It represents the latest style.  

    4. It was made by a fashion designer.  

    Note: B


  2. C When did the speaker start experimenting with 3D printing?

    1. When she had just graduated from her college.  

    2. When she attended a conference in New York.  

    3. When she was studying at a fashion design school.  

    4. When she attended a fashion show nine months ago.  

    Note: C

    讲座中明确提到,讲话者在服装设计学院学习时就尝试过用3D 打印技术制作时装。

  3. C What was the problem with the material the speaker worked on at a New York fashion house?

    1. It was difficult to print.  

    2. It was hard to come by.  

    3. It was hard and breakable.  

    4. It was extremely expensive.  

    Note: C


  4. D What does the speaker say about Filaflex?

    1. It is the latest model of a 3D printer.  

    2. It is a plastic widely used in 3D printing.  

    3. It gives fashion designers room for imagination.  

    4. It marks a breakthrough in printing material.  

    Note: D


     有一次暑假,我来到了纽约,在唐人街的一家时装店实习。我们制作了两件不可思议的3D打印服装。它们非常棒 --- 你可以从这里看到。但是关于它们还有一些问题。它们是由硬塑料制成的,这就是为什么它们非常易碎。模特不能穿着它们坐下,甚至被手臂下的塑料刮伤。
     因此现在,主要的挑战是找到正确的打印衣服的材料,我是指你给打印机提供的材料。当我被介绍给Filaflex时 --- 这是一种新型的印刷材料,这个突破来了。它非常结实,也很有弹性。利用它,我能够打印出第一件衣服,一件写有"自由"字样的红色外套。实际上,你可以轻松地下载这件夹克,并将这个词改成别的东西,例如你的名字或你亲爱的的名字。


Recording Three [22:45]
     Welcome to the third lecture in our series on the future of small businesses in Europe. [23] The purpose of today's lecture, as you have seen from the title and the abstract, is to examine in more detail the problems facing small and medium-sized enterprises which arise at least in part from having to adapt to rapid advances in technology. And I want to look at these both from a financial and from a personnel point of view and to offer a few hopefully effective solutions.
     Here we have three of the most important problems facing small businesses that I want to look at today.
     First, keeping up with the pace of technological change, recruiting high quality staff in a time of skills shortages in IT as a whole and in a highly competitive market, and the issue of retaining staff once they've been recruited and trained. Now, all of these problems involve significant costs for all businesses. But there are particularly challenging issues for small and medium-sized enterprises. And those costs would vary depending on the size and scale of the businesses.
     So let's come to the first issue on our list which is keeping pace with developments in technology. Now we all know [24] that the technology industry is intensely competitive with new products being launched all year round as the various companies strive to compete with each other, rather than, say once a year or every couple of years. And this is a real headache for smaller businesses. So, let's imagine we have a small company which is doing OK. It's just about making a profit and it spends most of its income on overheads. So for a company in this situation, keeping up to date with the latest technology, even if it's only for the benefit of key staff, this can be hugely expensive.
     So in my view, some creative thinking needs to come in here to find ways to help companies in this situation to stay ahead in the game, but at the same time, to remain technologically competitive.
     Well, there's a possibility that small groups of companies with similar requirements but not directly competing with each other, they could share the cost of upgrading in much the same way as, let's say, an intranet operates within large organizations. [25] In fact, cost-sharing could be a very practical solution, especially in times of financial difficulty. If there's downward pressure on costs, because of a need for investment in other areas, I would argue that this is a perfectly feasible solution.

  1. A What does the speaker say about the problems facing small and medium-sized enterprises?

    1. They arise from the advances in technology.  

    2. They have not been examined in detail so far.  

    3. They are easy to solve with modern technology.  

    4. They can’t be solved without government support.  

    Note: A


  2. D What does the speaker say about the technology industry?

    1. It is attractive to entrepreneurs.  

    2. It demands huge investment.  

    3. It focuses on new products.  

    4. It is intensely competitive.  

    Note: D


  3. D What is a practical solution to the problems of small and medium-sized businesses?

    1. Cooperation with big companies.  

    2. Recruiting more qualified staff.  

    3. In-service training of IT personnel.  

    4. Sharing of costs with each other.  

    Note: D





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