CET6-201612-1听力注解(含音频)

CET6-201612-1.mp3

 

Conversation One [00:40]
W: Professor Henderson, could you give us a brief overview of what you do, where you work and your main area of research?
M: Well, [1] the Center for Climate Research where I work links the science of climate change to issues around economics and policy. Some of our research is to do with the likely impacts of climate change and all of the associated risks.
W: And how strong is the evidence that climate change is happening? That it's really something we need to be worried about.
M: Well, most of the science of climate change, particularly that to do with global warming, is simply fact. But other aspects of the science are less certain or at least more disputed. And so we're really talking about risk. [2] What the economics tells us is that it's probably cheaper to avoid climate change --- to avoid the risk --- than it is to deal with the likely consequences.
W: So what are we doing? What can we do about it?
M: Well I would argue that we need to develop the science specifically to understand the likely impacts of climate change in different contexts. As I said, we need to understand the best ways of avoiding climate change, [3] and this will involve a huge transition to low carbon energy systems and the transition is a tremendous priority. And for this to happen, we may need action on a global scale. From a political perspective, we need to understand the terms on which major countries like China and the USA might sign up to a global agreement because at the moment we don't have that consensus.
W: Right.
M: And [4] we also need to plan ahead so that we're in a position to deal with the likely levels of climate change which are already inevitable and even more so, too, for the levels that are likely if we don't get those global agreements.

  1. C What does Professor Henderson say about his main area of research?

    1. It tries to predict the possible trends of global climate change.  

    2. It studies the impacts of global climate change on people’s lives.  

    3. It links the science of climate change to economic and policy issues.  

    4. It focuses on the efforts countries can make to deal with global warming.  

    Note: C

    对话开头,女士请男士介绍自己的工作内容、工作地点和主要研究领域,男士说自己在气候研究中心工作,主要工作是将气候变化学与经济和政策联系起来,他们的一些研究也涉及气候变化可能带来的影响和所有的相关危害。


  2. B What does Professor Henderson say about climate change?

    1. It will take a long time before a consensus is reached on its impact.  

    2. It would be more costly to deal with its consequences than to avoid it.  

    3. It is the most pressing issue confronting all countries.  

    4. It is bound to cause endless disputes among nations.  

    Note: B

    对话中男士提到,经济情况表明,防止气候变化比处理气候变化可能带来的影响花费更少。


  3. A What does Professor Henderson say is a top priority in combating climate change?

    1. The transition to low-carbon energy systems.  

    2. The cooperation among world major powers.  

    3. The signing of a global agreement.  

    4. The raising of people’s awareness.  

    Note: A

    在回答女士提出的如何应对气候变化的问题时,男士表示我们应发展专门的技术弄清楚气候变化可能带来的各种影响以及防止气候变化最有效的方法。男士认为防止气候变化涉及向低碳能源系统转型,这也是应对气候变化的当务之急。


  4. C What does Professor Henderson advise us to do to better deal with climate change?

    1. Carry out more research on it.  

    2. Cut down energy consumption.  

    3. Plan well in advance.  

    4. Adopt new technology.  

    Note: C

    对话结尾处男士提出了应对气候变化的几条建议,比如使用低碳能源、世界大国达成有关气候变化的全球协议、提前制定应对气候变化可能带来的问题的计划等等。


对话一
女:亨德森教授,您能简单跟我们说一下您的工作、工作地点和主要研究领域吗?
男:嗯,我工作的气候研究中心把气候变化的科学和经济与政策联系起来。我们的部分研究是有关气候变化的可能影响和相关风险的。
女:那么气候变化的症状有多明显呢?这是我们真正应该关心的问题。
男:多数气候变化的科学 --- 尤其是涉及全球变暖的 --- 是不争的事实。但是其他方面还不太确定或至少还有争议。所以我们在讨论的是风险。经济学告诉我们的是,避免气候变化 --- 从而防止风险 --- 比处理气候变化的后果,代价要小。
女:那么我们要做什么呢?我们能做什么?
男:我觉得我们应该发展科学,具体了解气候变化在不同情况下可能出现的后果。就像我说的,我们得知道避免气候变化的最佳方式,是朝着低碳能源系统的巨大转变,而这个转变是应该优先考虑的大事。为了实现这一点,全球都应该开始行动。从政治角度来说,我们需要了解诸如中国和美国这样的大国可能会签订的全球协议中的条款,因为现在我们还没有那种共识。
女:是的。
男:我们也需要提前计划,为无可避免的气候变化做准备,如果我们无法达成全球协议,那就更要(为可能发生的气候变化水平)做准备了。

 

Conversation Two [4:10]
W: I have many business English students. When I teach the classroom, [5] we often end up talking about things like success and what leads to success. And it's interesting that many of them mention the element of luck.
M: Right.
W: Luck is important to success. But since you've seen that fantastic video on the TED Talks website by Richard St. John, he doesn't mention luck at all.
M: Well, I'm a firm believer that people can make their own luck. I mean what people regard as luck, you can actually create, to a degree.
W: Sure. [6] I think a lot of what people consider luck is attributed to how you respond to the opportunities that come your way.
M: Yes. Very good point.
W: [6] Seizing the opportunities. But was there any point in the video that you thought was particularly interesting?
M: Yes. Actually there was. Something very impressive to me is many people think that luck is important and that natural talent is something you must have in order to be successful. [7] And in the video we saw, the point about getting good at something is not about having some natural talent. It's all about practice, practice, practice.
W: Definitely yeah. Natural talent helps in some way but at the end of the day you really do need to work hard and get really really good at what you do.
M: Sure.
W: I thought one interesting thing in the video was the idea of passion being so important and that people who really love what they do. Of course you're going to want to work harder and put the time and effort into it. [8] And the funny thing is that if you love what you do and are really passionate about it and work really hard, the money kind of comes automatically.

  1. B What are the speakers mainly talking about?

    1. When luck plays a role.  

    2. What determines success.  

    3. Whether practice makes perfect.  

    4. How important natural talent is.  

    Note: B

    对话开篇女士说自己上课结束前经常和学生们讨论成功这类的事情以及促成成功的因素,很有意思的是很多学生提到了运气这个因素。随后男士和女士讨论了运气与成功、天赋与成功、坚持训练与成功的关系。说明,对话的主要内容是成功的秘诀。


  2. D What is the woman’s view of luck?

    1. It knocks at your door only once in a while.  

    2. It is something that no one can possibly create.  

    3. It comes naturally out of one’s self-confidence.  

    4. It means being good at seizing opportunities.  

    Note: D

    对话中两人首先讨论了运气与成功的关系。女士认为,运气对于成功来说是很重要的,运气归结于人们在机会来临时的反应,所谓的幸运就是抓住了机会。


  3. D What is the chief point the TED Talks video makes?

    1. Luck rarely contributes to a person’s success.  

    2. One must have natural talent to be successful.  

    3. One should always be ready to seize opportunities.  

    4. Practice is essential to becoming good at something.  

    Note: D

    对话中提到TED Talks网站中的视频节目,该视频阐释了一个主要观点:是否擅长做某事不是取决于天赋,而是取决于是否坚持训练。


  4. C What does the woman think is the funny thing in the TED Talks video?

    1. Putting time and effort into fun things is profitable.  

    2. People who love what they do care little about money.  

    3. Being passionate about work can make one wealthy.  

    4. People in need of money work hard automatically.  

    Note: C

    对话结尾处女士说自己发现TED Talks网站视频节目中一件有趣的事情:如果你喜欢自己的工作,对工作充满热情并且非常努力,那么钱就会自动找上门来。


对话二
女:我有很多商务英语的学生。上课的时候,我们经常会在结束时讨论成功或者成功的因素之类的话题。一个很有趣的现象是他们很多人提到了运气这个因素。
男:嗯。
女:运气对成功很重要。但是你们也看到了TED上理查德·圣约翰出色的演讲视频,他完全没有提到运气。
男:我坚决相信人们可以自己创造运气。我是说人们所说的运气在某种程度上是可以创造的。
女:当然。我觉得很多时候人们所说的运气都归功于机会来临时你的反应。
男:是的。很棒的观点。
女:抓住机会。不过那个视频里有什么你觉得特别有趣的吗?
男:嗯。其实是有的。让我印象很深的是很多人认为运气很重要,而天赋是成功所必备的条件。在视频中我们看到,擅长某事并不意味着要有天赋。都是练习,练习再练习。
女:确实是这样。天赋的确有些作用,但最后你会发现要很努力才能把工作做的非常棒。
男:是的。
女:我觉得视频中很有意思的一点是激情很重要,人们要热爱自己所做的事。这样你才愿意更加努力地工作,愿意多花时间和精力。有趣的是如果你很喜欢你的工作,对它很有激情并且努力工作,钱就会自动挣到手了。

 

Passage One [7:55]
     [9] Devils Tower, the first national monument in America, could almost be mistaken for the stump of an enormous tree. Its sheer rock sides sweep up from a broad base until they cut off abruptly at the flat summit. Rising more than 1,000 feet in the middle of the gently rolling plains of Wyoming, the massive column of rock looks as though it was dropped down into this location from a different time and place.
     In a sense it was. Devils Tower is a relic of the past, when the molten rock of the earth's core forced its way to the surface to form the throat of a volcano. As the centuries passed, the rock cooled and hardened, shrinking and cracking into long columns. Born in fire and fury, [10] Devils Tower was then shaped by the slow, gentle work of wind and water. The outer layers of the volcano were worn away, until the hard core stood completely exposed.
     [11] Small wonder that an Indian legend described Devils Tower as being formed by supernatural powers. The legend says that when seven girls were attacked by bears, they took refuge on top of a small rock, and they appealed to the Rock God for help. [12] The god caused the rock to grow and to lift the girls far above the ground, while its sides were scored by the claws of the angry bears. Even today, says the legend, the girls can be seen above the towering rock, as seven shining stars in the night sky.

  1. A What does Devils Tower look like?

    1. The stump of a giant tree.  

    2. A huge piece of rock.  

    3. The peak of a mountain.  

    4. A tall chimney.  

    Note: A

    短文开篇介绍了魔鬼塔的基本情况:魔鬼塔是美国第一处受政府保护的名胜古迹,经常被误认为是一个巨大的树桩。


  2. B What caused the volcano’s outer layer to wear away?

    1. Human activity.  

    2. Wind and water.  

    3. Chemical processes.  

    4. Fire and fury.  

    Note: B

    短文中描述魔鬼塔的形成过程时提到,地心熔岩冲出地面形成了火山颈,火山岩冷却硬化后,收缩碎裂变成了长形的柱子,即魔鬼塔。后来,火山的外层不断被风和水侵蚀,露出了坚硬的核心部分。


  3. D What does an Indian legend say about Devils Tower?

    1. It is a historical monument.  

    2. It was built in ancient times.  

    3. It is Indians’ sacred place for worship.  

    4. It was created by supernatural powers.  

    Note: D

    短文中提到,关于魔鬼塔的形成,印第安人流传着一个传说,即魔鬼塔是由超自然的力量形成的。


  4. C How did the rock god help the seven girls in the Indian legend?

    1. By sheltering them in a cave.  

    2. By killing the attacking bears.  

    3. By lifting them well above the ground.  

    4. By taking them to the top of a mountain.  

    Note: C

    短文结尾处提到了关于魔鬼塔的传说:相传有七个女孩受到熊的攻击,她们逃到一块小岩石顶上避难并祈求岩石之神的庇护,岩石之神让小岩石长大,托着她们远离了地面,愤怒的熊在岩石侧面留下了抓痕。


短文一
     恶魔塔是美国第一个国家纪念碑,几乎可以被误认为是一棵巨大树木的树桩。它陡峭的岩石边从广阔的基础之上拔地而起,直到在平顶下突然被切断。在怀俄明州平缓的平原中部上升了1000多英尺,这块巨大的岩石看起来似乎是从另一时空降落到了这个位置。
     一定程度上是这样的。恶魔塔是历史遗迹,当地心的熔岩冲出地面时,它就形成了一座火山的喉咙。几百年过去了,岩石冷却硬化,收缩并开裂成长柱。恶魔塔生于火和怒之中,经由风雨缓慢轻柔的反复塑造。火山的外层被消蚀,直到硬核完全暴露在外。
     难怪有印度传说认为恶魔塔是由超自然的力量形成的。根据传说,有七个女孩受到熊的袭击,她们逃到一块小岩石上,并向石神求助。石神让岩石生长,把女孩抬到远离地面的高空,而岩石的四周则被愤怒的熊爪抓乱。即使在今天,传言还可以在高耸的岩石上看到女孩们,就像夜空中七颗闪亮的星星。

 

Passage Two [11:02]
     [13] It's no accident that most gas stations have convenience stores attached. Few of us can fill up the tank without buying a few snacks, cigarettes, soft drinks or other items we can live without. “I deserve it.” That's what hard-working men and women say to justify their lavish vacations, big stereo systems or regular restaurant meals. They do deserve such indulgences. However, they also deserve a home of their own, a secure retirement and freedom from worrying about unpaid bills.
     No one should have to live with what a Texas mother described as constant stress, tension, even fear about money. [14] Sadly, the pleasure that comes from extravagances often disappears long before the bills do. The video camera that one single mother bought for a special occasion, for example, is not much fun now. She's figured out that it will take her another three years to pay it off at $30 a month. And the New Yorkers who spent a bundle on an outdoor hot tub now admit they rarely use it, “because we can't afford to heat it in winter.” The solution --- set priorities, add up the annual cost of each item, then consider what else she could buy with the same money. That will help you decide which items are really worth it. [15] One Chicago woman, for example, discovered that daily lunches with coworkers cost her $2,000 a year; she decided to take lunch to work instead. “I now put $20 a week into my vacation fund, and another 20 into retirement savings,” she says. “Those mean more to me than lunch.”

  1. A What does the speaker say about drivers who stop at gas stations?

    1. They will buy something from the convenience stores.  

    2. They will take advantage of the time to rest a while.  

    3. They will have their vehicles washed or serviced.  

    4. They will pick up some souvenirs or gift items.  

    Note: A

    短文开篇提到,大多数加油站都配有便利店,这并不是偶然。加满油后,很少有人不去买一些零食、香烟、饮料或其他一些生活中可有可无的东西。说明,人们在加油站停车除了加油外,还会从便利店买东西。


  2. A What does the speaker say about extravagances?

    1. They can bring only temporary pleasures.  

    2. They are meant for the extremely wealthy.  

    3. They should be done away with altogether.  

    4. They may eventually drive one to bankruptcy.  

    Note: A

    短文中讲话者表示,没有人必须生活在德克萨斯一位母亲所描述的那种持续不断的压力、紧张,甚至对钱的恐惧中,但不幸的是,购买奢侈品带来的愉悦感经常在账单尚未还清之前就早早消失了。说明,奢侈品只能带来短暂的愉悦感。


  3. D What does the speaker want to show by the example of the Chicago woman?

    1. A good way to socialize is to have daily lunch with one’s colleagues.  

    2. Retirement savings should come first in one’s family budgeting.  

    3. A vacation will be affordable if one saves 20 dollars a week.  

    4. Small daily savings can make a big difference in one’s life.  

    Note: D

    短文结尾处提到一位芝加哥妇女发现每天与同事外出吃午饭,一年就花费了2000美元,她决定自己带饭,每周省下20美元存起来用于度假,另外20美元用于退休养老,她说这样比吃放更有意义。说明,小笔的日常积蓄可以改变一个人的生活。


短文二
     绝大多数加油站都有便利店,这很正常。很少有人在给油箱加油时而不买些小吃,香烟,软饮料或其他零碎物品的。"这是我应得的。" 那是辛苦工作的男女们为了证明他们奢华的假期、大型立体声系统或定期餐厅用餐合理而说的话。他们值得这样的放纵。但是,他们也值得拥有一个自己的家园,一个有保障的退休以及免于担心支付账单。
     没有人应该过得像一个德克萨斯州的母亲描述的那样,持续的压力,紧张,甚至担心金钱。令人遗憾的是,奢侈生活的快乐往往在账单付清之前很久就消失了。例如,一个母亲为特殊场合买的摄像机现在可没那么好玩了。她知道这会让自己在未来三年时间内每月支付30美元。而一个在户外热水浴缸上花了大价钱的纽约人现在承认他们很少使用它,"因为我们承担不起冬天加热的费用。" 解决方案是:设置优先事项,累加每项支出的年度总额,然后考虑她可以用相同的钱购买什么。这将帮助你决定哪些东西真的值得购买。例如,一名芝加哥女子发现与同事每日午餐每年花费2000美元;于是她决定带午饭去上班。她说:"我现在每周把20美元放入我的假期基金,另外20是退休储蓄金。" "这些对我来说比午饭更重要。"

 

Recording One [14:34]
     Let's say you start to brainstorm a list of all the emotions you've ever experienced. Just for fun, try it now.
     What's on your list? Chances are, you included things like happy, sad, excited, angry, afraid, grateful, proud, scared, confused, stressed, relaxed and amazed. Now sort your list into two categories --- positive emotions and negative emotions.
     [16] Feeling both positive and negative emotions is a natural part of being human. We might use the word "negative" to describe more difficult emotions, but it doesn't mean those emotions are bad or we shouldn't have them. Still, most people would probably rather feel a positive emotion than a negative one. It's likely you'd prefer to feel happy instead of sad, or confident instead of insecure.
     What matters is how our emotions are balanced --- how much of each type of emotion, positive or negative, we experience.
     Negative emotions warn us of threats or challenges that we may need to deal with. For example, fear can alert us to possible danger. It's a signal that we might need to protect ourselves. Angry feelings warn us that someone is stepping on our toes, crossing a boundary, or violating our trust. Anger can be a signal that we might need to act on our own behalf.
     Negative emotions focus our awareness. They help us to zero in on a problem so we can deal with it. But too many negative emotions can make us feel overwhelmed, anxious, exhausted or stressed out. [17] When negative emotions are out of balance, problems might seem too big to handle.
     The more we dwell on negative emotions, the more negative we begin to feel. Focusing on negativity just keeps it going. Positive emotions balance out negative ones, but they have other powerful benefits, too.
     Instead of narrowing our focus like negative emotions do, [18] positive emotions affect our brains in ways that increase our awareness, attention and memory. They help us take in more information, hold several ideas in mind at once, and understand how different ideas relate to each other. When positive emotions open us up to new possibilities, we are more able to learn and build on our skills. That leads to doing better on tasks and tests. People who have plenty of positive emotions in their everyday lives tend to be happier, healthier, learn better, and get along well with others.

  1. B What does the speaker say about negative emotions?

    1. They should be done away with.  

    2. They are necessary in our lives.  

    3. They enrich our experience.  

    4. They are harmful to health.  

    Note: B

    讲座开篇指出,积极或消极的情绪是人类与生俱来的一部分。我们可能会用“消极”这个词来形容那些更加艰难的情绪,但这并不意味着那些情绪是不好的,或者我们不能有那些情绪。随后,讲话者又指出了消极情绪的重要作用。说明,无论是积极的情绪还是消极的情绪都是生活中所必需的,不能简单地用好或者坏进行划分。


  2. B What happens to people whose negative emotions are out of balance?

    1. They feel stressed out even without any challenges in life.  

    2. They feel too overwhelmed to deal with life’s problems.  

    3. They are anxious to free themselves from life’s troubles.  

    4. They are exhausted even without doing any heavy work.  

    Note: B

    讲座中提到,过多的消极情绪会让人不知所措、焦虑、疲惫。当消极情绪失衡时,问题就会看起来严重得无法处理。说明,消极情绪失衡会让人们太过紧张,以至于无法处理生活中的问题。


  3. A How do positive emotions affect us?

    1. They expand our mind.  

    2. They prolong our lives.  

    3. They narrow our focus.  

    4. They lessen our burdens  

    Note: A

    讲座中提到,积极情绪能通过提高我们的感悟能力、注意力和记忆力来影响我们的大脑。说明,积极情绪可以拓展我们的头脑或思想。


录音一
     假设你开始集思广益地列出了你曾经遇到过的所有情绪。只是为了好玩,现在试试。
     你的清单上有什么?有可能包括了快乐,悲伤,兴奋,愤怒,害怕,感激,自豪,害怕,困惑,压力,放松和惊奇。现在把它们分成两类:积极情绪和消极情绪。
     感到积极和消极的情绪是人类自然的一部分。我们可能会使用"负面"一词来描述更麻烦的情绪,但并不意味着这些情绪是坏的,或者我们不应该拥有这些情绪。然而,大多数人可能宁愿感受到一种积极的情绪,而不是一种消极的情绪。你可能会喜欢开心而不是伤心,更喜欢自信而不是不安。
     重要的是我们的情绪如何平衡 --- 各种情绪,积极的还是消极的,我们分别经历了多少。
     消极的情绪警告我们可能有需要处理的威胁或挑战。例如,恐惧可以提醒我们可能存在的危险。这是我们可能需要用来保护自己的信号。愤怒的感觉警告我们有人正在踩我们的脚趾,超出了界限,或违背了我们的信任。愤怒可能是我们可能需要以我们自己的身份行事的信号。
     消极的情绪使我们的意识集中。它们帮助我们瞄准问题,以便我们处理。但是太多的消极情绪可能会使我们感到不知所措,焦虑,疲惫或紧张。当负面情绪失衡时,问题可能会太大而难以处理。
     我们沉溺于消极情绪越多,我们越开始感到消极。专注于消极性只会继续这样下去。积极的情绪平衡消极的情绪,但也有其他强效的好处。
     不像我们的消极情绪那样缩小我们的焦点,积极的情绪会影响我们的大脑,增强我们的意识,注意力和记忆力。他们帮助我们收集更多的信息,同时想出几个想法,并了解不同的想法如何相互关联。积极的情绪让我们有新的可能性,更能学习和建立我们的技能。这导致我们在任务和测试方面取得更好的结果。在日常生活中充满积极情绪的人往往会更快乐,更健康,更好地学习,并与别人相处融洽。

 

Recording Two [18:40]
     In the past few months, I've been traveling for weeks at a time with only one suitcase of clothes. One day, I was invited to an important event, and I wanted to wear something special for it. I looked through my suitcase but couldn't find anything to wear. I was lucky to be at the technology conference then, and [19] I had access to 3D printers. So I quickly designed a skirt on my computer, and I loaded the file on the printer. It just printed the pieces overnight. The next morning, I just took all the pieces, assembled them together in my hotel room, and this is actually the skirt that I'm wearing right now.
     So it wasn't the first time that I printed clothes. [20] For my senior collection at fashion design school, I decided to try and 3D print an entire fashion collection from my home. The problem was that I barely knew anything about 3D printing, and I had only nine months to figure out how to print five fashionable looks.
     I always felt most creative when I worked from home. I loved experimenting with new materials, and I always tried to develop new techniques to make the most unique textiles for my fashion projects.
     One summer break, I came here to New York for an internship at a fashion house in Chinatown. We worked on two incredible dresses that were 3D printed. They were amazing --- like you can see here. [21] But I had a few problems with them. They were made from hard plastics and that's why they were very breakable. The models couldn't sit in them, and they even got scratched from the plastics under their arms.
     So now, the main challenge was to find the right material for printing clothes with, I mean the material you feed the printer with. [22] The breakthrough came when I was introduced to Filaflex, which is a new kind of printing material. It's strong, yet very flexible. And with it, I was able to print the first garment, a red jacket that had the word “freedom” embedded into it. And actually, you can easily download this jacket, and change the word to something else, for example, your name or your sweetheart's name.
     So I think in the future, materials will evolve, and they will look and feel like fabrics we know today, like cotton or silk.

  1. B What does the speaker say about the skirts he is wearing now?

    1. It is not easily breakable.  

    2. It came from a 3D printer.  

    3. It represents the latest style.  

    4. It was made by a fashion designer.  

    Note: B

    讲座开篇提到,讲话者要参加一个重要的活动,却找不到合适的衣服,于是她在电脑上设计了一条裙子,使用3D打印机制造了出来,而这条裙子正是她此刻身上穿的这件。


  2. C When did the speaker start experimenting with 3D printing?

    1. When she had just graduated from her college.  

    2. When she attended a conference in New York.  

    3. When she was studying at a fashion design school.  

    4. When she attended a fashion show nine months ago.  

    Note: C

    讲座中明确提到,讲话者在服装设计学院学习时就尝试过用3D 打印技术制作时装。


  3. C What was the problem with the material the speaker worked on at a New York fashion house?

    1. It was difficult to print.  

    2. It was hard to come by.  

    3. It was hard and breakable.  

    4. It was extremely expensive.  

    Note: C

    讲话者自述在纽约唐人街一家时装店做实习生的经历提到,她在设计服装时遇到了问题,她们制作的两条裙子是用硬塑料做成的,因此很易碎。说明,制作裙子的材料坚硬且易碎。


  4. D What does the speaker say about Filaflex?

    1. It is the latest model of a 3D printer.  

    2. It is a plastic widely used in 3D printing.  

    3. It gives fashion designers room for imagination.  

    4. It marks a breakthrough in printing material.  

    Note: D

    讲座中提到,用3D打印技术制作衣服最主要的挑战是找到合适的打印材料,讲话者认为Filaflex这种新型打印材料是一个重大突破。


录音二
     在过去的几个月里,我旅行了几个星期,只带了一行李箱的衣服。有一天,我被邀请参加一个重要的活动,我想穿一些特别的东西。我翻遍了我的旅行箱,但找不到任何能穿的。我很幸运能够参与技术会议,而且我可以使用3D打印机。所以我很快在我的电脑上设计了一条裙子,把文件载入打印机。一夜间就把部件打印好了。第二天早上,我把所有部件都拿出来,在我的酒店房间里把它们组合起来,实际上就成了我现在所穿的裙子。
     所以这不是我第一次打印衣服。关于我在时装设计学院的高级时装,我决定在家里尝试3D打印整个时尚系列。问题是我几乎不了解3D打印,而我只有九个月的时间来弄清楚如何打印五种时尚的款式。
     我一直觉得我在家工作时最有创意。我喜欢尝试新材料,我一直在努力开发新的技术,为我的时尚项目做出最独特的纺织品。
     有一次暑假,我来到了纽约,在唐人街的一家时装店实习。我们制作了两件不可思议的3D打印服装。它们非常棒 --- 你可以从这里看到。但是关于它们还有一些问题。它们是由硬塑料制成的,这就是为什么它们非常易碎。模特不能穿着它们坐下,甚至被手臂下的塑料刮伤。
     因此现在,主要的挑战是找到正确的打印衣服的材料,我是指你给打印机提供的材料。当我被介绍给Filaflex时 --- 这是一种新型的印刷材料,这个突破来了。它非常结实,也很有弹性。利用它,我能够打印出第一件衣服,一件写有"自由"字样的红色外套。实际上,你可以轻松地下载这件夹克,并将这个词改成别的东西,例如你的名字或你亲爱的的名字。
     所以我认为,未来的材料将会发展,就像我们今天所知道的面料,棉花或丝绸一般。

 

Recording Three [22:45]
     Welcome to the third lecture in our series on the future of small businesses in Europe. [23] The purpose of today's lecture, as you have seen from the title and the abstract, is to examine in more detail the problems facing small and medium-sized enterprises which arise at least in part from having to adapt to rapid advances in technology. And I want to look at these both from a financial and from a personnel point of view and to offer a few hopefully effective solutions.
     Here we have three of the most important problems facing small businesses that I want to look at today.
     First, keeping up with the pace of technological change, recruiting high quality staff in a time of skills shortages in IT as a whole and in a highly competitive market, and the issue of retaining staff once they've been recruited and trained. Now, all of these problems involve significant costs for all businesses. But there are particularly challenging issues for small and medium-sized enterprises. And those costs would vary depending on the size and scale of the businesses.
     So let's come to the first issue on our list which is keeping pace with developments in technology. Now we all know [24] that the technology industry is intensely competitive with new products being launched all year round as the various companies strive to compete with each other, rather than, say once a year or every couple of years. And this is a real headache for smaller businesses. So, let's imagine we have a small company which is doing OK. It's just about making a profit and it spends most of its income on overheads. So for a company in this situation, keeping up to date with the latest technology, even if it's only for the benefit of key staff, this can be hugely expensive.
     So in my view, some creative thinking needs to come in here to find ways to help companies in this situation to stay ahead in the game, but at the same time, to remain technologically competitive.
     Well, there's a possibility that small groups of companies with similar requirements but not directly competing with each other, they could share the cost of upgrading in much the same way as, let's say, an intranet operates within large organizations. [25] In fact, cost-sharing could be a very practical solution, especially in times of financial difficulty. If there's downward pressure on costs, because of a need for investment in other areas, I would argue that this is a perfectly feasible solution.

  1. A What does the speaker say about the problems facing small and medium-sized enterprises?

    1. They arise from the advances in technology.  

    2. They have not been examined in detail so far.  

    3. They are easy to solve with modern technology.  

    4. They can’t be solved without government support.  

    Note: A

    讲座开篇提到,本讲座的目的是深入探讨中小企业因不得不适应科技进步而面临的问题。说明,中小企业面临的问题是由科技进步引起的。


  2. D What does the speaker say about the technology industry?

    1. It is attractive to entrepreneurs.  

    2. It demands huge investment.  

    3. It focuses on new products.  

    4. It is intensely competitive.  

    Note: D

    讲话者在论述中小企业面临的第一个难题时指出,技术产业竞争非常激烈,企业为了相互竞争,不是一年一次或者几年一次发布新产品,而是一年到头一直都在发布新产品。


  3. D What is a practical solution to the problems of small and medium-sized businesses?

    1. Cooperation with big companies.  

    2. Recruiting more qualified staff.  

    3. In-service training of IT personnel.  

    4. Sharing of costs with each other.  

    Note: D

    讲座结尾处提到,如果中小企业有相似的需求,而彼此之间没有直接的竞争关系,那么分担升级成本是解决资金困难的一个非常实用的方法。


录音三
     欢迎来到关于欧洲小企业未来的系列讲座第三讲。正如你从标题和摘要中看到的,今天讲座的目的是更详细地研究中小型企业面临的问题,至少部分原因是不得不适应技术的快速发展。我想从财务和人事方面来看,并提供一些但愿有效的解决方案。
     今天我们要看的是小企业面临的三个最重要的问题。
     首先是跟上技术变革的步伐,在IT整体技能短缺,市场竞争激烈的时候招聘高素质的员工,而后招聘培训人员的问题。现在,所有这些问题都涉及所有企业的重大成本。但中小企业还面临着特别具有挑战性的问题。这些费用将因企业规模和规模而异。
     所以我们来看看我们的列表中的第一个问题:跟上技术的发展。现在我们都知道,技术行业全年都在,而不是每年或每几年一次地推出的新产品,竞争激烈,各家公司相互角逐。这对小企业来说真是一个头痛的地方。所以,我们想象一下有一家运行不错的小公司。赚取少许利润,大部分收入花在运营费用上。所以对于这种情况下的公司来说,保持最新的技术,即使只是为了关键人员的利益,都可能是非常昂贵的。
     所以在我看来,为了帮助企业在这种情况下保持领先这里需要有一些创造性思维,但与此同时还要保持技术竞争力。
     那么,一种可行的办法是,有类似要求但不直接相互竞争的一些小公司可以分担升级成本,就像内联网在大型组织中运行一样。事实上,费用分摊可能是一个非常实际的解决方案,特别是在经济困难时期。如果由于需要投资于其他领域而导致成本压力加剧,我认为这是一个完全可行的解决方案。

 

 

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